Eye Health: What is Glaucoma?

Tunnel vision. Two words used together to figuratively describe short-sighted actions and “one-track minds.” But when it comes to vision loss from glaucoma, tunnel vision takes on a much more literal meaning.

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a term used to describe a group of eye diseases that, gone undiagnosed and untreated, cause damage to the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. Often referred to as the “silent thief of sight,” glaucoma has the uncanny ability to develop over time without any symptoms, and very slowly degrade your ability to see, starting with peripheral vision.

After cataracts, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the disease most typically affects people over the age of 60. With an ever-growing senior population in the United States, it’s estimated about 3 million Americans have glaucoma—many undiagnosed.

The Relationship Between Eye Pressure and Vision Loss

Your eyes contain a clear fluid (aqueous humor) that delivers nutrients to the structures in your eyes that are involved in sight. When this fluid does not drain properly from the eye through something called the trabecular meshwork, it builds up and causes the internal pressure to increase.

Over time, without diagnosis this pressure puts a strain on the optic nerves at the back of your eyes. The optic nerve takes the images presented to your retina and delivers them directly to your brain for processing. Once damaged, it does not recover, so the resulting vision loss is permanent.

What are symptoms of glaucoma?

The three types of glaucoma include open-angle glaucoma, closed-angle glaucoma, and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle and normal-tension glaucoma don’t typically present any symptoms, but closed-angle glaucoma is caused by a sudden blocking of the meshwork that drains the fluid from your eyes. With a sudden spike in internal pressure, the resulting symptoms of glaucoma include:

 - Severe eye pain

 - Blurred vision

 - Mid-dilated pupils

 - Redness of the eye

 - Nausea

Seek immediate medical attention if you experience these symptoms to avoid any permanent vision loss. Your eye doctor will act quickly with medication or surgery.

How can you find out if you have glaucoma?

Since glaucoma is most often symptomless, and you may not detect subtle changes in your vision over time, it’s a good idea to identify if you’re at risk for developing the disease. While it’s a little bit worrisome to imagine losing your sight permanently, the early detection and treatment of glaucoma is fairly simple.

A comprehensive dilated eye exam is the best way to detect the disease. Your eye doctor will test the pressure of your eyes and take a close look at your optic nerves for any abnormalities or changes. He or she will prescribe medications to reduce the excessive fluid in your eyes or perform surgery to clear the trabecular meshwork if necessary.

Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam annually is the best preventive measure, especially if you’re over the age of 60. If you have diabetes, chronic migraines, or a family history of glaucoma, then you may be at an increased risk for glaucoma. Simply talk to your eye doctor.

Use your VSP Individual Vision Plan to schedule your next appointment. If you don’t have vision insurance, find out how VSP can help you save on your next eye exam or pair of glasses.

Information received through VSP Vision Care's social media channels is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice, medical recommendations, diagnosis or treatment.  Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. 

Continue Reading

Why Buy a VSP Vision Insurance Plan?

Have you wondered what a VSP individual vision insurance plan is, how much it costs, and if it’s even worth it? Read to learn more.

Continue reading

Are Vision Insurance Premiums Tax Deductible?

Did you know that parts of your vision insurance and medical expenses actually qualify for tax deductions? Learn more.

Continue reading

Can Contacts Help Astigmatism?

Did you know that contact lenses have been developed to accommodate astigmatism? Learn more about contacts and astigmatism.

Continue reading

Your vision.
Your way.

Not covered for vision?

Get an individual plan, customized for you – including where you want to use it: at the doctor, in a retail location, or even online.

Healthy vision association discounts

Some plans can only be accessed through membership in the Healthy Vision Association (HVA), which helps its members see well and stay healthy.

For $1.50/mo, your membership will give you access to exclusive discount programs* on everyday goods and services including:

Plus, your membership supports vision-related charities too.

Click to download full details

*All rebates and special offers are subject to change